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Install Icinga 2 on Ubuntu

Add Icinga Package Repository

We recommend using our official repositories. Here’s how to add it to your system:

Ubuntu Repository

apt-get update
apt-get -y install apt-transport-https wget gnupg

wget -O - https://packages.icinga.com/icinga.key | apt-key add -

. /etc/os-release; if [ ! -z ${UBUNTU_CODENAME+x} ]; then DIST="${UBUNTU_CODENAME}"; else DIST="$(lsb_release -c| awk '{print $2}')"; fi; \
 echo "deb https://packages.icinga.com/ubuntu icinga-${DIST} main" > \
 /etc/apt/sources.list.d/${DIST}-icinga.list
 echo "deb-src https://packages.icinga.com/ubuntu icinga-${DIST} main" >> \
 /etc/apt/sources.list.d/${DIST}-icinga.list

apt-get update

Install Icinga 2

You can install Icinga 2 by using your distribution’s package manager to install the icinga2 package. The following commands must be executed with root permissions unless noted otherwise.

apt-get install icinga2

Systemd Service

The majority of supported distributions use systemd. The Icinga 2 packages automatically install the necessary systemd unit files.

If you’re stuck with configuration errors, you can manually invoke the configuration validation.

icinga2 daemon -C

Tip

If you are running into fork errors with systemd enabled distributions, please check the troubleshooting chapter.

Set up Check Plugins

Without plugins Icinga 2 does not know how to check external services. The Monitoring Plugins Project provides an extensive set of plugins which can be used with Icinga 2 to check whether services are working properly.

These plugins are required to make the example configuration work out-of-the-box.

Depending on which directory your plugins are installed into you may need to update the global PluginDir constant in your Icinga 2 configuration. This constant is used by the check command definitions contained in the Icinga Template Library to determine where to find the plugin binaries.

Tip

Please refer to the service monitoring chapter for details about how to integrate additional check plugins into your Icinga 2 setup.

apt-get install monitoring-plugins

Set up Database

The IDO (Icinga Data Output) feature for Icinga 2 stores all configuration and status information into a database. Icinga Web 2 connects to the IDO database to visualize the data properly. You can either use a MySQL or PostgreSQL database.

We recommend to install and configure the IDO feature before continuing with the installation of Icinga Web 2.

Note

We’re currently working on a new data backend called Icinga DB. If you want to try the latest release candidate skip to the Icinga DB Chapter. Please keep in mind, that this version is not ready for use in production and currently only supports MySQL.

IDO with MySQL

Install MySQL Server

apt-get install mariadb-server mariadb-client

mysql_secure_installation

Install IDO Feature

The next step is to install the icinga2-ido-mysql package using your distribution’s package manager.

apt-get install icinga2-ido-mysql

Note

The packages provide a database configuration wizard by default. You can skip the automated setup and install/upgrade the database manually if you prefer.

Set up MySQL database

Set up a MySQL database for Icinga 2:

# mysql -u root -p

CREATE DATABASE icinga;
GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, DROP, CREATE VIEW, INDEX, EXECUTE ON icinga.* TO 'icinga'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'icinga';
quit

After creating the database you can import the Icinga 2 IDO schema using the following command. Enter the root password into the prompt when asked.

mysql -u root -p icinga < /usr/share/icinga2-ido-mysql/schema/mysql.sql

Enable the IDO MySQL feature

The package provides a new configuration file that is installed in /etc/icinga2/features-available/ido-mysql.conf. You can update the database credentials in this file.

All available attributes are explained in the IdoMysqlConnection object chapter.

Enable the ido-mysql feature configuration file using the icinga2 command:

# icinga2 feature enable ido-mysql
Module 'ido-mysql' was enabled.
Make sure to restart Icinga 2 for these changes to take effect.

Restart Icinga 2.

systemctl restart icinga2

IDO with PostgreSQL

Install PostgreSQL server

apt-get install postgresql

Install IDO Feature

The next step is to install the icinga2-ido-pgsql package using your distribution’s package manager.

apt-get install icinga2-ido-pgsql

Note

Upstream Debian packages provide a database configuration wizard by default. You can skip the automated setup and install/upgrade the database manually if you prefer that.

Set up PostgreSQL database

Set up a PostgreSQL database for Icinga 2:

cd /tmp
sudo -u postgres psql -c "CREATE ROLE icinga WITH LOGIN PASSWORD 'icinga'"
sudo -u postgres createdb -O icinga -E UTF8 icinga

Note

It is assumed here that your locale is set to utf-8, you may run into problems otherwise.

Locate your pg_hba.conf configuration file and add the icinga user with md5 as authentication method and restart the postgresql server. Common locations for pg_hba.conf are either /etc/postgresql/*/main/pg_hba.conf or /var/lib/pgsql/data/pg_hba.conf.

# icinga
local   icinga      icinga                            md5
host    icinga      icinga      127.0.0.1/32          md5
host    icinga      icinga      ::1/128               md5

# "local" is for Unix domain socket connections only
local   all         all                               ident
# IPv4 local connections:
host    all         all         127.0.0.1/32          ident
# IPv6 local connections:
host    all         all         ::1/128               ident

Restart PostgreSQL:

systemctl restart postgresql

After creating the database and permissions you need to import the IDO database schema using the following command:

export PGPASSWORD=icinga
psql -U icinga -d icinga < /usr/share/icinga2-ido-pgsql/schema/pgsql.sql

Enable the IDO PostgreSQL feature

The package provides a new configuration file that is installed in /etc/icinga2/features-available/ido-pgsql.conf. You can update the database credentials in this file.

All available attributes are explained in the IdoPgsqlConnection object chapter.

Enable the ido-pgsql feature configuration file using the icinga2 command:

# icinga2 feature enable ido-pgsql
Module 'ido-pgsql' was enabled.
Make sure to restart Icinga 2 for these changes to take effect.

Restart Icinga 2.

systemctl restart icinga2

Icinga DB

Icinga DB is a new data backend currently in development. It’s purpose is to synchronise data between Icinga 2 (Redis) and Icinga Web 2 (MySQL), some day replacing the IDO. Don’t worry, we won’t drop support on the IDO any time soon.

Note

Icinga DB is not ready to be used in production and should only be used for testing purposes.

Configue Icinga DB

First, make sure to setup Icinga DB itself and its database backends (Redis and MySQL) by following the installation instructions.

Enable Icinga DB feature

Icinga 2 provides a configuration file that is installed in /etc/icinga2/features-available/icingadb.conf. You can update the Redis credentials in this file.

All available attributes are explained in the IcingaDB object chapter.

You can enable the icingadb feature configuration file using icinga2 feature enable:

# icinga2 feature enable icingadb
Module 'icingadb' was enabled.
Make sure to restart Icinga 2 for these changes to take effect.

Restart Icinga 2.

systemctl restart icinga2

Set up Icinga 2 REST API

Icinga Web 2 requires the REST API to send actions (reschedule check, etc.) and query object details.

You can run the CLI command icinga2 api setup to enable the api feature and set up certificates as well as a new API user root with an auto-generated password in the /etc/icinga2/conf.d/api-users.conf configuration file:

icinga2 api setup

Edit the api-users.conf file and add a new ApiUser object. Specify the permissions attribute with minimal permissions required by Icinga Web 2.

object ApiUser "icingaweb2" {
  password = "Wijsn8Z9eRs5E25d"
  permissions = [ "status/query", "actions/*", "objects/modify/*", "objects/query/*" ]
}

Restart Icinga 2 to activate the configuration.

systemctl restart icinga2

Install Icinga Web 2

You are now ready to start the installation of Icinga Web 2. Please follow the Icinga Web 2 installation instructions.

Note

If you’re using Icinga DB, follow the installation instructions to install and enable the Icinga DB Web module.

Syntax Highlighting

Icinga 2 provides configuration examples for syntax highlighting using the vim and nano editors.

Using Vim

Install the package vim-icinga2 with your distribution’s package manager.

apt-get install vim-icinga2 vim-addon-manager
vim-addon-manager -w install icinga2
Info: installing removed addon 'icinga2' to /var/lib/vim/addons

Ensure that syntax highlighting is enabled e.g. by editing the user’s vimrc configuration file:

# vim ~/.vimrc
syntax on

Test it:

vim /etc/icinga2/conf.d/templates.conf

Vim with syntax highlighting

Using Nano

Install the package nano-icinga2 with your distribution’s package manager.

Note: The syntax files are installed with the icinga2-common package already.

Copy the /etc/nanorc sample file to your home directory.

cp /etc/nanorc ~/.nanorc

Include the icinga2.nanorc file.

$ vim ~/.nanorc

## Icinga 2
include "/usr/share/nano/icinga2.nanorc"

Test it:

nano /etc/icinga2/conf.d/templates.conf

Nano with syntax highlighting

Installation Overview

Enabled Features during Installation

The default installation will enable three features required for a basic Icinga 2 installation:

  • checker for executing checks
  • notification for sending notifications
  • mainlog for writing the icinga2.log file

You can verify that by calling icinga2 feature list CLI command to see which features are enabled and disabled.

# icinga2 feature list
Disabled features: api command compatlog debuglog gelf graphite icingastatus ido-mysql ido-pgsql influxdb livestatus opentsdb perfdata statusdata syslog
Enabled features: checker mainlog notification

Installation Paths

By default Icinga 2 uses the following files and directories:

Path Description
/etc/icinga2 Contains Icinga 2 configuration files.
/usr/lib/systemd/system/icinga2.service The Icinga 2 systemd service file on systems using systemd.
/etc/systemd/system/icinga2.service.d/limits.conf On distributions with systemd >227, additional service limits are required.
/etc/init.d/icinga2 The Icinga 2 init script on systems using SysVinit or OpenRC.
/usr/sbin/icinga2 Shell wrapper for the Icinga 2 binary.
/usr/lib*/icinga2 Libraries and the Icinga 2 binary (use find /usr -type f -name icinga2 to locate the binary path).
/usr/share/doc/icinga2 Documentation files that come with Icinga 2.
/usr/share/icinga2/include The Icinga Template Library and plugin command configuration.
/var/lib/icinga2 Icinga 2 state file, cluster log, master CA, node certificates and configuration files (cluster, api).
/var/run/icinga2 PID file.
/var/run/icinga2/cmd Command pipe and Livestatus socket.
/var/cache/icinga2 status.dat/objects.cache, icinga2.debug files.
/var/spool/icinga2 Used for performance data spool files.
/var/log/icinga2 Log file location and compat/ directory for the CompatLogger feature.

Addons

A number of additional features are available in the form of addons. A list of popular addons is available in the Addons and Plugins chapter.

Backup

Ensure to include the following in your backups:

  • Configuration files in /etc/icinga2
  • Certificate files in /var/lib/icinga2/ca (Master CA key pair) and /var/lib/icinga2/certs (node certificates)
  • Runtime files in /var/lib/icinga2
  • Optional: IDO database backup

Database Backup

MySQL/MariaDB:

PostgreSQL: